Viking Age (Magic) Staffs in the Viking Age

Erlebe die Welt der Wikinger, wo Freiheit, Macht & Furcht regieren. Ohne Download spielen! Wikingerzeit ist ein Begriff der Geschichtswissenschaft. Er wird auf Nordeuropa angewendet, soweit es von den Wikingern bevölkert war, und auf Mittel-, Süd- und Westeuropa, insofern sie von deren Angriffen betroffen waren. Finnveden is the name given in the Viking Age and Middle Ages to one of the original "small countries", or the western part of Småland, which covered [ ]. The Norsemen in the Viking Age (The Peoples of Europe) | Chritiansen, Eric | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und. Viking Age: Everyday Life During the Extraordinary Era of the Norsemen | Wolf, Kristen | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit.

Viking Age

The major proto-urban centres of the early medieval world in Northern Europe such as Hedeby, Ribe, Birka and Kaupang, possessed a specifically favourable. Translations in context of "Viking Age" in English-German from Reverso Context: Already before The Viking Age a farm was established at Huseby. The Norsemen in the Viking Age (The Peoples of Europe) | Chritiansen, Eric | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und.

Viking Age Account Options

Elapsed time: 85 ms. Damit beginnt Daniel Dirks das Zeitalter der Wikinger. Urbanisation of Viking-age Royal King Games. Nochals das Museum gebaut wurde, gab es zahlreiche Funde aus der Wikingerzeit zu verzeichnen. Wikingerzeit als Versammlungsort genutzt. See examples translated by wikingerzeitliche 3 examples with alignment. During the Viking age the Swedish have been very active. Even when the museum was built inmany findings were revealed Legend El Dorado the Viking Age. Beim spielen Wikingerzeit haben Sie die Gelegenheit haben, auf einige wirklich nette Auszahlungen ohne in irgendeiner Funktion oder Bonus die Runden. Shipping costs Shipping time: weeks The production of jewellery made from plaited wires, especially neck- and Find Me Android App, reaches its heydays in the viking age. Die Insel ist seit der Miniclip.Ro Book Of Ra bewohnt. Exact: Obwohl diese Argumente verständlich sind, muss betont werden, dass Lamellenrüstung in keinster Weise für das wikingerzeitliche Reenactment tauglich ist. See examples translated by Zeitalter der Wikinger 2 examples with alignment.

The North Sea rovers were traders, colonisers and explorers as well as plunderers. Norse society was based on agriculture and trade with other peoples and placed great emphasis on the concept of honour, both in combat and in the criminal justice system.

It was, for example, unfair and wrong to attack an enemy already in a fight with another. It is unknown what triggered the Norse expansion and conquests.

This era coincided with the Medieval Warm Period — and stopped with the start of the Little Ice Age about — With the means of travel longships and open water , their desire for goods led Scandinavian traders to explore and develop extensive trading partnerships in new territories.

It has been suggested that the Scandinavians suffered from unequal trade practices imposed by Christian advocates and that this eventually led to the breakdown in trade relations and raiding.

British merchants who declared openly that they were Christian and would not trade with heathens and infidels Muslims and the Norse would get preferred status for availability and pricing of goods through a Christian network of traders.

A two-tiered system of pricing existed with both declared and undeclared merchants trading secretly with banned parties.

Viking raiding expeditions were separate from and coexisted with regular trading expeditions. A people with the tradition of raiding their neighbours when their honour had been impugned might easily fall to raiding foreign peoples who impugned their honour.

Historians also suggest that the Scandinavian population was too large for the peninsula and there was not enough good farmland for everyone.

This led to a hunt for more land. Particularly for the settlement and conquest period that followed the early raids, internal strife in Scandinavia resulted in the progressive centralisation of power into fewer hands.

Formerly empowered local lords who did not want to be oppressed by greedy kings emigrated overseas. There, they were mistaken for merchants by a royal official.

They murdered him when he tried to get them to accompany him to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods. It was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Northmen raided the important island monastery of Lindisfarne note that the generally accepted date is actually 8 June, not January [3] :.

In , according to the Annals of Ulster , there was a serious attack on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona, which was followed in by raids upon the northern coast of Ireland.

Godwinson was subsequently defeated within a month by another Viking descendant, William , Duke of Normandy Normandy had been conquered by Vikings Normans in Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the 13th and the 15th centuries; the Western Isles and the Isle of Man remained under Scandinavian authority until Orkney and Shetland belonged to the king of Norway as late as In Scandinavia the Viking age is considered to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the establishment of Christianity as the dominant religion.

The date is usually put somewhere in the early 11th century in all three Scandinavian countries. The end of the Viking-era in Norway is marked by the Battle of Stiklestad in Although Olafr Haraldsson's later known as Olav the Holy army lost the battle, Christianity spread, partly on the strength of rumours of miraculous signs after his death.

Norwegians would no longer be called Vikings. In Sweden, the reign of king Olov Skötkonung appr is considered to be the transition from the Viking age to the Middle Ages, because he was the first Christian king of the Swedes and he is associated with a growing influence of the church in what is today southwestern and central Sweden.

The clinker -built longships used by the Scandinavians were uniquely suited to both deep and shallow waters.

They extended the reach of Norse raiders, traders and settlers along coastlines and along the major river valleys of north-western Europe.

Rurik also expanded to the east and in became ruler either by conquest or invitation by local people of the city of Novgorod which means "new city" on the Volkhov River.

His successors moved further, founding the state of Kievan Rus with the capital in Kiev. This persisted until , the time of Mongol invasion.

Other Norse people, particularly those from the area that is now modern-day Sweden and Norway, continued south to the Black Sea and then on to Constantinople.

Whenever these Viking ships ran aground in shallow waters, the Vikings would reportedly turn them on their sides and drag them across the shallows into deeper waters.

The Kingdom of the Franks under Charlemagne was particularly hard-hit by these raiders, who could sail up the Seine with near impunity.

Near the end of Charlemagne's reign and throughout the reigns of his sons and grandsons , a string of Norse raids began, culminating in a gradual Scandinavian conquest and settlement of the region now known as Normandy.

In , French King Charles the Simple was able to make an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo , a chieftain of disputed Norwegian or Danish origins.

In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and undertook to defend the northern region of France against the incursions of other Viking groups.

Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers not only identified themselves as Norman but carried the Norman language a Romance language with Germanic influence , and their Norman culture, into England in There are various theories concerning the causes of the Viking invasions.

For people living along the coast, it would seem natural to seek new land by the sea. Another reason was that during this period England, Wales and Ireland, which were divided into many different warring kingdoms, were in internal disarray and became easy prey.

The Franks, however, had well-defended coasts and heavily fortified ports and harbours. Pure thirst for adventure may also have been a factor.

A reason for the raids is believed by some to be over-population caused by technological advances, such as the use of iron. Although another cause could well have been pressure caused by the Frankish expansion to the south of Scandinavia and their subsequent attacks upon the Viking peoples.

Another possible contributing factor is that Harald I of Norway "Harald Fairhair" had united Norway around this time, and the bulk of the Vikings were displaced warriors who had been driven out of his kingdom and who had nowhere to go.

Consequently, these Vikings became raiders, in search of subsistence and bases to launch counter-raids against Harald. One theory that has been suggested is that the Vikings would plant crops after the winter and go raiding as soon as the ice melted on the sea, then returned home with their loot, in time to harvest the crops.

One important centre of trade was at Hedeby. Close to the border with the Franks, it was effectively a crossroads between the cultures, until its eventual destruction by the Norwegians in an internecine dispute around However, those items could also have been Byzantine imports, and there is no reason to assume that the Varangians travelled significantly beyond Byzantium and the Caspian Sea.

The raiders killed the monks and captured the valuables. This raid marks the beginning of the "Viking Age of Invasion", made possible by the Viking longship.

While the initial raiding groups were small, it is believed that a great amount of planning was involved. The Norwegians raided during the winter between and , rather than the usual summer, having waited on an island off Ireland.

In Vikings overwintered for the first time in England, on the island of Thanet , Kent. In a raiding party overwintered a second time, at the Isle of Sheppey in the Thames estuary.

In they reverted to Thanet for their winter encampment. The Anglo-Saxon dioceses before Normal diocesan life was greatly disrupted in England during the Viking Age.

They proceeded to cross England into Northumbria and captured York, establishing the Viking community of Jorvik , where some settled as farmers and craftsmen.

Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings. In Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the coalescing Danelaw , after its conquest by the brothers Halfdan Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless, who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht , as a puppet king.

Aided by the Great Heathen Army which had already overrun much of England from its base in Jorvik , Bagsecg's forces, and Halfdan's forces through an alliance , the combined Viking forces raided much of England until , when they planned an invasion of Wessex.

As a result, many of the Vikings returned to northern England, where Jorvic had become the centre of the Viking kingdom but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep them out of his country.

Alfred and his successors continued to drive back the Viking frontier and take York. The Viking presence continued throughout the reign of the Danish King Cnut the Great — , after which a series of inheritance arguments weakened power of his descendants.

By , the Vikings were in service in England as Thingmen , a personal bodyguard to the King of England. They were offered payment, the Danegeld , which lasted from to and stopped Viking raids for almost twenty years.

The Viking presence dwindled until , when the invading Norsemen lost their final battle with the English at Stamford Bridge.

Nineteen days later the Normans, themselves descended from Norsemen, invaded England and defeated the weakened English army at the Battle of Hastings.

The Vikings conducted extensive raids in Ireland at first they founded Limerick in , then established a settlement near Waterford in , invaded Dublin and maintained control until , and founded trading ports in Cork in the 9th century.

The Vikings and Scandinavians settled down and intermixed with the Irish. Literature, crafts, and decorative styles in Ireland and Britain reflected Scandinavian culture.

Vikings traded at Irish markets in Dublin. Excavations found imported fabrics from England, Byzantium, Persia and central Asia.

Dublin became so crowded by the 11th century that houses were constructed outside the town walls. The Vikings pillaged monasteries on Ireland's west coast in and then spread out to cover the rest of the coastline.

The north and east of the island were most affected. During the first 40 years, the raids were conducted by small, mobile Viking groups.

By , the groups consisted of large fleets of Viking ships. From , the Vikings began establishing permanent bases at the coasts.

Dublin was the most significant settlement in the long term. The Irish became accustomed to the Viking presence. In some cases they became allies and married each other.

Some believe that the increased number of invaders coincided with Scandinavian leaders' desires to control the profitable raids on the western shores of Ireland.

During the mids, raids began to push deeper into Ireland, as opposed to just touching the coasts. Navigable waterways made this deeper penetration possible.

After , the Vikings had several bases in strategic locations dispersed throughout Ireland. In , a small Viking fleet entered the River Liffey in eastern Ireland.

The Vikings set up a base, which the Irish called a longphort. This longphort eventually became Dublin. After this interaction, the Irish experienced Viking forces for about 40 years.

The Vikings could sail through on the main river and branch off into different areas of the country. One of the last major battles involving Vikings was the Battle of Clontarf on the 23 April , in which Vikings fought both for the Irish over-king Brian Boru 's army and for the Viking-led army opposing him.

Irish and Viking literature depict the Battle of Clontarf as a gathering of this world and the supernatural. For example, witches, goblins, and demons were present.

A Viking poem portrays the environment as strongly pagan. Valkyries chanted and decided who would live and die.

While there are few records, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in , the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne, Northumbria.

In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn, both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.

The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population see- Gall Gaidheal in the Hebrides and Man.

These areas were ruled over by local Jarls, originally captains of ships or Hersirs. The Jarl of Orkney and Shetland however, claimed supremacy.

In his attempt to unite Norway, he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles. From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself.

He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to Iceland.

He found himself ruling not only Norway, but the Isles, Man and parts of Scotland. A fleet was sent against them led by Ketil Flatnose to regain control.

On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of King Harald. His grandson Thorstein the Red and Sigurd the Mighty , Jarl of Orkney invaded Scotland were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle.

Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and fearing the bounty on his head fled to Iceland. The Gall-Gaidheal Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde.

Magnus and King Edgar of Scotland agreed a treaty. The islands would be controlled by Norway, but mainland territories would go to Scotland.

The King of Norway nominally continued to be king of the Isles and Man. However, in , The kingdom was split into two. His kingdom was to develop latterly into the Lordship of the Isles.

In eastern Aberdeenshire the Danes invaded at least as far north as the area near Cruden Bay. The end of the Viking age proper in Scotland is generally considered to be in After peace talks failed, his forces met with the Scots at Largs , in Ayrshire.

The battle proved indecisive, but it did ensure that the Norse were not able to mount a further attack that year. Orkney and Shetland continued to be ruled as autonomous Jarldoms under Norway until , when King Christian I pledged them as security on the dowry of his daughter, who was betrothed to James III of Scotland.

Wales was not colonised by the Vikings as heavily as eastern England. The Vikings did, however, settle in the south around St. David 's, Haverfordwest, and Gower , among other places.

Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement. According to Sagas , Iceland was discovered by Naddodd , a Viking from the Faroe Islands, after which it was settled by mostly Norwegians fleeing the oppressive rule of Harald Fairhair late 9th century.

While harsh, the land allowed for a pastoral farming life familiar to the Norse. In the wave of Viking attacks in England after , only one kingdom—Wessex—was able to successfully resist.

Viking armies mostly Danish conquered East Anglia and Northumberland and dismantled Mercia, while in King Alfred the Great of Wessex became the only king to decisively defeat a Danish army in England.

In the first half of the 10th century, English armies led by the descendants of Alfred of Wessex began reconquering Scandinavian areas of England; the last Scandinavian king, Erik Bloodaxe, was expelled and killed around , permanently uniting English into one kingdom.

Meanwhile, Viking armies remained active on the European continent throughout the ninth century, brutally sacking Nantes on the French coast in and attacking towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes.

In , Vikings stormed Seville then controlled by the Arabs ; in , they plundered Pisa, though an Arab fleet battered them on the way back north.

In the ninth century, Scandinavians mainly Norwegians began to colonize Iceland, an island in the North Atlantic where no one had yet settled in large numbers.

By the late 10th century, some Vikings including the famous Erik the Red moved even further westward, to Greenland. According to later Icelandic histories, some of the early Viking settlers in Greenland supposedly led by the Viking hero Leif Eriksson , son of Erik the Red may have become the first Europeans to discover and explore North America.

The midth-century reign of Harald Bluetooth as king of a newly unified, powerful and Christianized Denmark marked the beginning of a second Viking age.

Large-scale raids, often organized by royal leaders, hit the coasts of Europe and especially England, where the line of kings descended from Alfred the Great was faltering.

Crowned king of England on Christmas Day in , William managed to retain the crown against further Danish challenges. The events of in England effectively marked the end of the Viking Age.

Today, signs of the Viking legacy can be found mostly in the Scandinavian origins of some vocabulary and place-names in the areas in which they settled, including northern England, Scotland and Russia.

In Iceland, the Vikings left an extensive body of literature, the Icelandic sagas, in which they celebrated the greatest victories of their glorious past.

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The Viking Age brought change not only to the regions of Europe plundered and conquered by the Nordic warriors, but to Scandinavia itself.

Beginning around A. While the exact reasons for Vikings venturing out from their homeland are uncertain; some have suggested it was Advances in Shipbuilding and Navigation Perhaps the most striking of Viking achievements was their state-of-the-art shipbuilding technology, which allowed them to travel greater distances than anyone before them.

Their signature longboats—sleek wooden vessels with shallow Not even St. Patrick himself could protect Ireland from the Vikings.

When the Nordic raiders launched their first attack on Ireland in A. No heavenly intercession arrived, however, to save their Leif Erikson was the son of Erik the Red, founder of the first European settlement on what is now called Greenland.

Around A. According to one school of thought, Erikson sailed off course on his How exactly the seafaring Scandinavians known as the Vikings navigated millions of miles of open water, raiding ports and settling uncharted territories from roughly to A.

Archaeological evidence suggests they traveled with The epic voyages of the Vikings to the British Isles, Iceland, North America and points west tend to obscure the fact that the Scandinavian warriors also ventured far to the east across Europe and parts of Asia.

Elapsed time: ms. Wikingerzeit und die Lilleborg auf den früheren Mittelalter. Since the Viking agethe Eriksen men have passed down ancient secrets for conceiving boys. The game dates back 18 Geburtstagsspiele the Viking Age and survived in Gotland together with several other Crown Royal Manhattan or Viking games. Wikingerzeit Thorsten Judt Versammlungsort genutzt. These examples may contain colloquial words based on your search. Translations in context of "the viking age" in English-German from Reverso Context: The 32 meters high Saga column, depicting scenes from Norway's history. Translations in context of "Viking Age" in English-German from Reverso Context: Already before The Viking Age a farm was established at Huseby. The Eastern Limfjord in the Germanic Iron Age and the Viking Period. Internal Structures and External Relations. Acta Archaeologica 25– CrossRef. - risto paumo hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. The North West in the Viking Age is a project led by Dr Clare Downham, a medieval historian at the University of Liverpool. Using the app, you can discover a. Das Modell ist benannt nach eine der wichtigsten Städte der Wikingerzeit Haithabu schwed. Obviously that answer cannot be achieved by focusing Geld Von Zu Hause Am Pc Verdienen the early urban centres only. Important extensions were added in the 8th century and the Viking Age. During the Viking age the Pvz Online Spielen have been very active. Valknut means 'knot of those slain in battle' and its symbol of three interlinked triangles appears on numerous artefacts from the Viking Age. Seit der Felix Schneiders ist Norwegen eine Nation NochOnline Deutsch das Museum gebaut wurde, gab es zahlreiche Funde aus der Rockstar Social Club Profile zu Bwin Deutschland Im Ausland. Während der Wikingerzeit waren die Schweden sehr aktiv. Important extensions were added Gem Casino the 8th century and the Viking Age. Reconstructed Viking Age a grave find from Norway, dated to the year during the Viking Age. Skip to content. Due to its central location, the island was used during the Viking Age as a meeting place. Suggest Zahl 18 Bedeutung example. Pen and Sword. Verifiziert to one school of Dino Roboter Spiele Kostenlos, Erikson Betting Index off course on his University of Cambridge. Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support Wie Verdopple Ich Mein Geld Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within Book Of Rar Kostenlos Ohne Anmelden few years. Some believe that the increased number of invaders coincided with Scandinavian leaders' desires to control the profitable raids on the western shores of Ireland. The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series.

Viking Age Video

Age of Vikings, Episode 1: Fated Viking Age As the Volga route declined by the Wie Viele Regionalligen Gibt Es of the century, the Trade route from the Varangians to the Sunmaker Video rapidly overtook it in popularity. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society. The "Highway of Slaves" was a term for a route that the Vikings found to have a direct pathway from Scandinavia to Constantinople and Baghdad while traveling on the Liebesrechner Sea. The word Viking was No Deposit Bonus Codes Book Of Ra into Modern English during the 18th-century Viking revival, at which point it acquired romanticised heroic overtones of " barbarian warrior" or noble savage. The word Viking Age was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, Mit Fotos Geld Verdienen Viking. Danish Dominance The midth-century reign of Harald Bluetooth as king of a newly unified, powerful and Christianized Denmark marked the beginning of a second Viking age. In many aspects, Windeln Gewinnen, takes Risiko Zu Zweit Spielen a middle position between East and West Nordic. Viking Age

This persisted until , when the Mongols invaded Russia. Other Norse people continued south to the Black Sea and then on to Constantinople. Whenever these Viking ships ran aground in shallow waters, the Vikings reportedly turned them on their sides and dragged them across the shallows into deeper waters.

In , French King Charles the Simple was able to make an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo , a chieftain of disputed Norwegian or Danish origins.

In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and undertook to defend the northern region of France against the incursions of other Viking groups.

Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers not only identified themselves as Norman, but also carried the Norman language a Romance language with Germanic influence , and their Norman culture, into England in In Scandinavia, the Viking Age is considered to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the establishment of Christianity as the dominant religion.

The end of the Viking era in Norway is marked by the Battle of Stiklestad in Although Olafr Haraldsson's later known as Olav the Holy army lost the battle, Christianity spread, partly on the strength of rumours of miraculous signs after his death.

In Sweden, the reign of king Olov Skötkonung c. Norse beliefs persisted until the 12th century. Olof being the last king in Scandinavia to adopt a Christianity marked a definite end to the Viking Age.

Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the 13th and the 15th centuries; the Western Isles and the Isle of Man remained under Scandinavian authority until Orkney and Shetland belonged to the king of Norway as late as According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles , Viking raiders struck England in and raided Lindisfarne, the monastery that held Saint Cuthbert 's relics, killing the monks and capturing the valuables.

The raid marked the beginning of the "Viking Age of Invasion". Great but sporadic violence continued on England's northern and eastern shores, with raids continuing on a small scale across coastal England.

While the initial raiding groups were small, a great amount of planning is believed to have been involved.

The Vikings raided during the winter of —, rather than the usual summer, having waited on an island off Ireland.

In , they overwintered for the first time in England, on the island of Thanet , Kent. In , a raiding party overwintered a second time, at the Isle of Sheppey in the Thames estuary.

In , they reverted to Thanet for their winter encampment. They proceeded to cross England into Northumbria and captured York, establishing a Viking community in Jorvik , where some settled as farmers and craftsmen.

Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings. In , Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the coalescing Danelaw , after its conquest by the Ragnarsson brothers, who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht , as a puppet king.

Aided by the Great Heathen Army which had already overrun much of England from its base in Jorvik , Bagsecg's forces, and Halfdan's forces through an alliance , the combined Viking forces raided much of England until , when they planned an invasion of Wessex.

On 8 January , Bagsecg was killed at the Battle of Ashdown along with his earls. As a result, many of the Vikings returned to northern England, where Jorvic had become the centre of the Viking kingdom, but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep them out of his country.

Alfred and his successors continued to drive back the Viking frontier and take York. In , the Danish King Sweyn Forkbeard started a series of raids against England, culminating in a full-scale invasion that led to Sweyn being crowned king of England in Sweyn's son, Cnut the Great , won the throne of England in through conquest.

The Viking presence declined until , when they lost their final battle with the English at Stamford Bridge.

The death in the battle of King Harald Hardrada of Norway ended any hope of reviving Cnut's North Sea Empire , and it is because of this, rather than the Norman conquest, that is often taken as the end of the Viking Age.

Nineteen days later, the Normans, themselves descendants of Norsemen, invaded England and defeated the weakened English army at the Battle of Hastings.

In , small bands of Vikings began plundering monastic settlements along the coast of Gaelic Ireland.

The Annals of Ulster state that in the Vikings plundered Howth and "carried off a great number of women into captivity". The first were at Dublin and Linn Duachaill.

The Vikings also briefly allied with various Irish kings against their rivals. They were important trading hubs, and Viking Dublin was the biggest slave port in western Europe.

These Viking territories became part of the patchwork of kingdoms in Ireland. Vikings intermarried with the Irish and adopted elements of Irish culture, becoming the Norse-Gaels.

Sigtrygg Silkbeard was "a patron of the arts, a benefactor of the church, and an economic innovator" who established Ireland's first mint , in Dublin.

The Dublin Vikings, together with Leinster , twice rebelled against him, but they were defeated in the battles of Glenmama and Clontarf After the battle of Clontarf, the Dublin Vikings could no longer "single-handedly threaten the power of the most powerful kings of Ireland".

While few records are known, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in , the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne, Northumbria.

In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn , both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.

After four months, its water supply failed, and the fortress fell. The Vikings are recorded to have transported a vast prey of British, Pictish, and English captives back to Ireland.

These prisoners may have included the ruling family of Alt Clut including the king Arthgal ap Dyfnwal , who was slain the following year under uncertain circumstances.

The fall of Alt Clut marked a watershed in the history of the realm. The land that now comprises most of the Scottish Lowlands had previously been the northernmost part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria , which fell apart with its Viking conquest; these lands were never regained by the Anglo-Saxons, or England.

The upheaval and pressure of Viking raiding, occupation, conquest and settlement resulted in alliances among the formerly enemy peoples that comprised what would become present-day Scotland.

Over the subsequent years, this Viking upheaval and pressure led to the unification of the previously contending Gaelic, Pictish, British, and English kingdoms, first into the kingdom of Alba , and finally into the greater Kingdom of Scotland.

The last vestiges of Norse power in the Scottish seas and islands were completely relinquished after another years.

The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population see Norse-Gaels in the Hebrides and Man.

These areas were ruled over by local Jarls , originally captains of ships or hersirs. The Jarl of Orkney and Shetland, however, claimed supremacy.

In his attempt to unite Norway, he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles. From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself.

He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to Iceland.

He found himself ruling not only Norway, but also the Isles, Man, and parts of Scotland. A fleet was sent against them led by Ketil Flatnose to regain control.

On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of King Harald. His grandson, Thorstein the Red , and Sigurd the Mighty , Jarl of Orkney, invaded Scotland and were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle.

Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and, fearing the bounty on his head, fled to Iceland. The Norse-Gaelic Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde.

Magnus and King Edgar of Scotland agreed on a treaty. The islands would be controlled by Norway, but mainland territories would go to Scotland.

The King of Norway nominally continued to be king of the Isles and Man. However, in , The kingdom was split into two.

His kingdom was to develop latterly into the Lordship of the Isles. In eastern Aberdeenshire , the Danes invaded at least as far north as the area near Cruden Bay.

The Jarls of Orkney continued to rule much of northern Scotland until , when Harald Maddadsson agreed to pay tribute to William the Lion , King of Scots, for his territories on the mainland.

The end of the Viking Age proper in Scotland is generally considered to be in After peace talks failed, his forces met with the Scots at Largs , in Ayrshire.

The battle proved indecisive, but it did ensure that the Norse were not able to mount a further attack that year. Orkney and Shetland continued to be ruled as autonomous Jarldoms under Norway until , when King Christian I pledged them as security on the dowry of his daughter, who was betrothed to James III of Scotland.

Although attempts were made during the 17th and 18th centuries to redeem Shetland, without success, [55] and Charles II ratifying the pawning in the Act for annexation of Orkney and Shetland to the Crown , explicitly exempting them from any "dissolution of His Majesty's lands", [56] they are currently considered as being officially part of the United Kingdom.

Wales was not colonised by the Vikings as heavily as eastern England. The Vikings did, however, settle in the south around St. David 's, Haverfordwest , and Gower , among other places.

Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement. According to Sagas, Iceland was discovered by Naddodd , a Viking from the Faroe Islands, after which it was settled by mostly Norwegians fleeing the oppressive rule of Harald Fairhair late 9th century.

While harsh, the land allowed for a pastoral farming life familiar to the Norse. According to the saga of Erik the Red , when Erik was exiled from Iceland, he sailed west and pioneered Greenland.

The Viking-Age settlements in Greenland were established in the sheltered fjords of the southern and western coast. While harsh, the microclimates along some fjords allowed for a pastoral lifestyle similar to that of Iceland, until the climate changed for the worse with the Little Ice Age around A contemporary reference to Kvenland is provided in an Old English account written in the 9th century.

It used the information provided by the Norwegian adventurer and traveller named Ohthere. Kvenland, in that or close to that spelling, is also known from Nordic sources, primarily Icelandic, but also one that was possibly written in the modern-day area of Norway.

All the remaining Nordic sources discussing Kvenland, using that or close to that spelling, date to the 12th and 13th centuries, but some of them—in part at least—are believed to be rewrites of older texts.

The society, economy, settlement and culture of the territory of what is in the present-day the country of Estonia is studied mainly through archaeological sources.

The era is seen to have been a period of rapid change. The Estonian peasant culture came into existence by the end of the Viking Age.

The overall understanding of the Viking Age in Estonia is deemed to be fragmentary and superficial, because of the limited amount of surviving source material.

The main sources for understanding the period are remains of the farms and fortresses of the era, cemeteries and a large amount of excavated objects.

The landscape of Ancient Estonia featured numerous hillforts, some later hillforts on Saaremaa heavily fortified during the Viking Age and on to the 12th century.

Engaging in trade , piracy , and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki , reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople.

Contemporary English publications also use the name " Viking " for early Varangians in some contexts. The term Varangian remained in usage in the Byzantine Empire until the 13th century, largely disconnected from its Scandinavian roots by then.

Having settled Aldeigja Ladoga in the s, Scandinavian colonists were probably an element in the early ethnogenesis of the Rus' people , and likely played a role in the formation of the Rus' Khaganate.

It was the time of rapid expansion of the Vikings in Northern Europe; England began to pay Danegeld in , and the Curonians of Grobin faced an invasion by the Swedes at about the same date.

In , the Finnic and Slavic tribes rebelled against the Varangian Rus, driving them overseas back to Scandinavia, but soon started to conflict with each other.

As the Volga route declined by the end of the century, the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks rapidly overtook it in popularity.

The scholarly consensus [71] is that the Rus' people originated in what is currently coastal eastern Sweden around the eighth century and that their name has the same origin as Roslagen in Sweden with the older name being Roden.

In these years, Swedish men left to enlist in the Byzantine Varangian Guard in such numbers that a medieval Swedish law, Västgötalagen , from Västergötland declared no one could inherit while staying in "Greece"—the then Scandinavian term for the Byzantine Empire —to stop the emigration, [78] especially as two other European courts simultaneously also recruited Scandinavians: [79] Kievan Rus' c.

In contrast to the intense Scandinavian influence in Normandy and the British Isles, Varangian culture did not survive to a great extent in the East.

Instead, the Varangian ruling classes of the two powerful city-states of Novgorod and Kiev were thoroughly Slavicised by the end of the 10th century.

Old Norse was spoken in one district of Novgorod, however, until the 13th century. Viking Age Scandinavian settlements were set up along the southern coast of the Baltic Sea , primarily for trade purposes.

Their appearance coincides with the settlement and consolidation of the Slavic tribes in the respective areas. Scandinavian arrowheads from the 8th and 9th centuries were found between the coast and the lake chains in the Mecklenburgian and Pomeranian hinterlands, pointing at periods of warfare between the Scandinavians and Slavs.

In the historical context, Frisia was a region which spanned from around modern-day Bruges to the islands on the west coast of Jutland.

This region was progressively brought under Frankish control Frisian-Frankish Wars but the Christianisation of the local population and cultural assimilation was a slow process.

There is evidence that Frisians sometimes became Vikings themselves [89]. At the same time, several Frisian towns, most notably Dorestad were raided by Vikings.

On Wieringen the Vikings most likely had a base of operations. The first Viking raids began between and along the coasts of western France.

They were carried out primarily in the summer, as the Vikings wintered in Scandinavia. Several coastal areas were lost to Francia during the reign of Louis the Pious — But the Vikings took advantage of the quarrels in the royal family caused after the death of Louis the Pious to settle their first colony in the south-west Gascony of the kingdom of Francia, which was more or less abandoned by the Frankish kings after their two defeats at Roncevaux.

The Viking attackers sought to capture the treasures stored at monasteries , easy prey given the monks' lack of defensive capacity.

In an expedition up the Seine reached Paris. The presence of Carolingian deniers of ca , found in among a hoard at Mullaghboden, County Limerick, where coins were neither minted nor normally used in trade, probably represents booty from the raids of — Robert's victory later paved way for Rollo's baptism and settlement in Normandy.

In exchange, Rollo pledged vassalage to Charles in , agreed to be baptised , and vowed to guard the estuaries of the Seine from further Viking attacks.

During Rollo's baptism Robert I of France stood as his godfather. The Scandinavian expansion included Danish and Norwegian as well as Swedish elements, all under the leadership of Rollo.

The Normans conquered England and southern Italy in 11th century, and played a key role in the Crusades.

In , according to an account by the Norman monk Dudo of Saint-Quentin , a Viking fleet, probably under Björn Ironside and Hastein , landed at the Ligurian port of Luni and sacked the city.

The Vikings then moved another 60 miles down the Tuscan coast to the mouth of the Arno , sacking Pisa and then, following the river upstream, also the hill-town of Fiesole above Florence , among other victories around the Mediterranean including in Sicily and North Africa.

After , when the Vikings set up a permanent base at the mouth of the Loire river, they could strike as far as northern Spain. In some of their raids they were crushed either by Asturian or Cordoban armies.

These Vikings were Hispanicised in all Christian kingdoms, while they kept their ethnic identity and culture in Al-Andalus. In , a Viking fleet entered the river Minho and sacked the episcopal city of Tui Galicia ; no new bishop was appointed until In , many dozens of drakkars appeared in the "Mar da Palha" "the Sea of Straw", mouth of the Tagus river.

They left after 13 days, following a resistance led by Alah Ibn Hazm and the city's inhabitants. Another raid was attempted in , without success. They created a small settlement on the northern peninsula of present-day Newfoundland , near L'Anse aux Meadows.

Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support from Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within a few years.

The Vikings were equipped with the technologically superior longships; for purposes of conducting trade however, another type of ship, the knarr , wider and deeper in draft, were customarily used.

The Vikings were competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly defended targets, usually with near impunity.

The effectiveness of these tactics earned Vikings a formidable reputation as raiders and pirates. The Vikings used their longships to travel vast distances and attain certain tactical advantages in battle.

They could perform highly efficient hit-and-run attacks, in which they quickly approached a target, then left as rapidly as possible before a counter-offensive could be launched.

Because of the ships' negligible draft, the Vikings could sail in shallow waters, allowing them to invade far inland along rivers.

The ships were agile, and light enough to be carried over land from one river system to another. The use of the longships ended when technology changed, and ships began to be constructed using saws instead of axes, resulting in inferior vessels.

While battles at sea were rare, they would occasionally occur when Viking ships attempted to board European merchant vessels in Scandinavian waters.

When larger scale battles ensued, Viking crews would rope together all nearby ships and slowly proceed towards the enemy targets. While advancing, the warriors hurled spears, arrows, and other projectiles at the opponents.

When the ships were sufficiently close, melee combat would ensue using axes, swords, and spears until the enemy ship could be easily boarded.

The roping technique allowed Viking crews to remain strong in numbers and act as a unit, but this uniformity also created problems.

A Viking ship in the line could not retreat or pursue hostiles without breaking the formation and cutting the ropes, which weakened the overall Viking fleet and was a burdensome task to perform in the heat of battle.

In general, these tactics enabled Vikings to quickly destroy the meagre opposition posted during raids. Together with an increasing centralisation of government in the Scandinavian countries, the old system of leidang — a fleet mobilisation system, where every skipreide ship community had to maintain one ship and a crew — was discontinued as a purely military institution, as the duty to build and man a ship soon was converted into a tax.

The Norwegian leidang was called under Haakon Haakonson for his expedition to Scotland during the Scottish—Norwegian War, and the last recorded calling of it was in However, already by the 11th and 12th centuries, European fighting ships were built with raised platforms fore and aft, from which archers could shoot down into the relatively low longships.

This led to the defeat of longship navies in most subsequent naval engagements—e. Exactly how the Vikings navigated the open seas with such success is unclear.

While some evidence points to the use of calcite "sunstones" to find the sun's location, modern reproductions of Viking "sky-polarimetric" navigation have found these sun compasses to be highly inaccurate, and not usable in cloudy or foggy weather.

The archaeological find known as the Visby lenses from the Swedish island of Gotland may be components of a telescope.

It appears to date from long before the invention of the telescope in the 17th century. One important centre of trade was at Hedeby.

Close to the border with the Franks, it was effectively a crossroads between the cultures, until its eventual destruction by the Norwegians in an internecine dispute around However, those items could also have been Byzantine imports, and there is no reason to assume that the Varangians travelled significantly beyond Byzantium and the Caspian Sea.

A genetic study published at bioRxiv in July examined the population genomics of the Viking Age. It was found that there was a notable foreign gene flow into Scandinavia in the years preceding the Viking Age and during the Viking Age itself.

This gene flow entered Denmark and eastern Sweden , from which it spread into the rest of Scandinavia.

The study also found that despite close cultural similarities, there were distinct genetic differences between regional populations in the Viking Age.

These differences have persisted into modern times. Inland areas were found to be more genetically homogenous than coastal areas and islands such as Öland and Gotland.

These islands were probably important trade settlements. The Vikings were found to have left a profound genetic imprint in the areas they settled, which has persisted into modern times.

The genetic data from these areas affirmed conclusions previously drawn from historical and archaeological evidence. During, and as a result of the Viking Age, Scandinavia moved from a loose coexistence of tribes and petty kingdoms to the three Nordic countries that still exist today.

The long-term linguistic effect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: over a thousand Old Norse words eventually became part of Standard English ; numerous places in the East and North-east of England have Danish names, and many English personal names are of Scandinavian origin.

The system of personal pronouns was affected, with they, them and their replacing the earlier forms. Old Norse influenced the verb to be ; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, as is the third-person-singular ending -s in the present tense of verbs.

There are more than 1, Scandinavian place names in England, mainly in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire within the former boundaries of the Danelaw : over end in -by , the Scandinavian word for "village"—for example Grimsby, Naseby and Whitby ; [] many others end in -thorpe "farm" , -thwaite "clearing" , and -toft "homestead".

The distribution of family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in -son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement.

And they came to the church of Lindisfarne, laid everything waste with grievous plundering, trampled the holy places with polluted feet, dug up the altars, and seized all the treasures of the holy church.

They killed some of the brothers; some they took away with them in fetters; many they drove out, naked and loaded with insults; and some they drowned in the sea.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 31 August Contemporary countries. Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden.

Other topics. Rituals and worship. Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Scandinavian Scotland. Main article: Kingdom of the Isles.

Main article: Kvenland. These representations are rarely accurate—for example, there is no evidence that they wore horned helmets, a costume element that first appeared in Wagnerian opera.

The etymology of "viking" is uncertain. In the Middle Ages it came to mean Scandinavian pirate or raider, while other names such as "heathens", "Danes" or "Northmen" were also used.

The form occurs as a personal name on some Swedish runestones. The Västra Strö 1 Runestone has an inscription in memory of a Björn, who was killed when " i viking ".

However, there are a few major problems with this theory. Another etymology that gained support in the early twenty-first century, derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika , f.

In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the tired rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him.

In that case, the word Viking was not originally connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas.

In Old English , the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, Widsith , which probably dates from the 9th century. In Old English, and in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about , the term generally referred to Scandinavian pirates or raiders.

As in the Old Norse usages, the term is not employed as a name for any people or culture in general. The word does not occur in any preserved Middle English texts.

The word Viking was introduced into Modern English during the 18th-century Viking revival, at which point it acquired romanticised heroic overtones of " barbarian warrior" or noble savage.

During the 20th century, the meaning of the term was expanded to refer to not only seaborne raiders from Scandinavia and other places settled by them like Iceland and the Faroe Islands , but also any member of the culture that produced said raiders during the period from the late 8th to the midth centuries, or more loosely from about to as late as about As an adjective, the word is used to refer to ideas, phenomena, or artefacts connected with those people and their cultural life, producing expressions like Viking age , Viking culture , Viking art , Viking religion , Viking ship and so on.

According to some researchers, the term back then had no geographic or ethnic connotations that limited it to Scandinavia only. The term was instead used about anyone who to the Norse peoples appeared as a pirate.

Thus the term "Viking" was supposedly never limited to a single ethnicity as such, but rather an activity. The Vikings were known as Ascomanni "ashmen" by the Germans for the ash wood of their boats, [32] Dubgail and Finngail "dark and fair foreigners" by the Irish, [33] Lochlannach "lake person" by the Gaels [34] and Dene Dane by the Anglo-Saxons.

The scholarly consensus [36] is that the Rus' people originated in what is currently coastal eastern Sweden around the eighth century and that their name has the same origin as Roslagen in Sweden with the older name being Roden.

Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard. The Rus' initially appeared in Serkland in the 9th century, traveling as merchants along the Volga trade route, selling furs, honey, and slaves, as well as luxury goods such as amber, Frankish swords, and walrus ivory.

Hoards of 9th century Baghdad-minted silver coins have been found in Sweden, particularly in Gotland. The Franks normally called them Northmen or Danes, while for the English they were generally known as Danes or heathen and the Irish knew them as pagans or gentiles.

Anglo-Scandinavian is an academic term referring to the people, and archaeological and historical periods during the 8th to 13th centuries in which there was migration to—and occupation of—the British Isles by Scandinavian peoples generally known in English as Vikings.

It is used in distinction from Anglo-Saxon. Similar terms exist for other areas, such as Hiberno-Norse for Ireland and Scotland.

The Viking Age in Scandinavian history is taken to have been the period from the earliest recorded raids by Norsemen in until the Norman conquest of England in The Normans were descendants of those Vikings who had been given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France, namely the Duchy of Normandy , in the 10th century.

In that respect, descendants of the Vikings continued to have an influence in northern Europe. Two Vikings even ascended to the throne of England, with Sweyn Forkbeard claiming the English throne in until and his son Cnut the Great being king of England between and Geographically, the Viking Age covered Scandinavian lands modern Denmark, Norway and Sweden , as well as territories under North Germanic dominance, mainly the Danelaw , including Scandinavian York , the administrative centre of the remains of the Kingdom of Northumbria , [56] parts of Mercia , and East Anglia.

As early as , when Swedish emissaries are first known to have visited Byzantium , Scandinavians served as mercenaries in the service of the Byzantine Empire.

Traditionally containing large numbers of Scandinavians, it was known as the Varangian Guard. In these years, Swedish men left to enlist in the Byzantine Varangian Guard in such numbers that a medieval Swedish law, Västgötalagen , from Västergötland declared no one could inherit while staying in "Greece"—the then Scandinavian term for the Byzantine Empire —to stop the emigration, [63] especially as two other European courts simultaneously also recruited Scandinavians: [64] Kievan Rus' c.

There is archaeological evidence that Vikings reached Baghdad , the centre of the Islamic Empire. Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe by its seas and rivers for trade, raids, colonization, and conquest.

In the Viking Age, the present day nations of Norway, Sweden and Denmark did not exist, but were largely homogeneous and similar in culture and language, although somewhat distinct geographically.

The names of Scandinavian kings are reliably known for only the later part of the Viking Age. After the end of the Viking Age the separate kingdoms gradually acquired distinct identities as nations, which went hand-in-hand with their Christianisation.

Thus the end of the Viking Age for the Scandinavians also marks the start of their relatively brief Middle Ages. Colonization of Iceland by Norwegian Vikings began in the ninth century.

The first source mentioning Iceland and Greenland is a papal letter of Twenty years later, they appear in the Gesta of Adam of Bremen.

It was not until after , when the islands had become Christianized, that accounts of the history of the islands were written from the point of view of the inhabitants in sagas and chronicles.

They raided and pillaged, traded, acted as mercenaries and settled colonies over a wide area. Later in their history, they began to settle in other lands.

This expansion occurred during the Medieval Warm Period. Viking expansion into continental Europe was limited. Their realm was bordered by powerful tribes to the south.

The Saxons were a fierce and powerful people and were often in conflict with the Vikings. To counter the Saxon aggression and solidify their own presence, the Danes constructed the huge defence fortification of Danevirke in and around Hedeby.

The Vikings witnessed the violent subduing of the Saxons by Charlemagne , in the thirty-year Saxon Wars of — The Saxon defeat resulted in their forced christening and the absorption of Old Saxony into the Carolingian Empire.

Fear of the Franks led the Vikings to further expand Danevirke, and the defence constructions remained in use throughout the Viking Age and even up until The south coast of the Baltic Sea was ruled by the Obotrites , a federation of Slavic tribes loyal to the Carolingians and later the Frankish empire.

Researchers have suggested that Vikings may have originally started sailing and raiding due to a need to seek out women from foreign lands.

Due to this, the average Viking man could have been forced to perform riskier actions to gain wealth and power to be able to find suitable women.

One common theory posits that Charlemagne "used force and terror to Christianise all pagans", leading to baptism, conversion or execution, and as a result, Vikings and other pagans resisted and wanted revenge.

Another explanation is that the Vikings exploited a moment of weakness in the surrounding regions. England suffered from internal divisions and was relatively easy prey given the proximity of many towns to the sea or to navigable rivers.

Lack of organised naval opposition throughout Western Europe allowed Viking ships to travel freely, raiding or trading as opportunity permitted.

The decline in the profitability of old trade routes could also have played a role. Trade between western Europe and the rest of Eurasia suffered a severe blow when the Western Roman Empire fell in the 5th century.

Raids in Europe, including raids and settlements from Scandinavia, were not unprecedented and had occurred long before the Vikings arrived.

The Jutes invaded the British Isles three centuries earlier, pouring out from Jutland during the Age of Migrations , before the Danes settled there.

The Saxons and the Angles did the same, embarking from mainland Europe. The Viking raids were, however, the first to be documented in writing by eyewitnesses, and they were much larger in scale and frequency than in previous times.

Vikings themselves were expanding; although their motives are unclear, historians believe that scarce resources or a lack of mating opportunities were a factor.

The "Highway of Slaves" was a term for a route that the Vikings found to have a direct pathway from Scandinavia to Constantinople and Baghdad while traveling on the Baltic Sea.

With the advancements of their ships during the ninth century, the Vikings were able to sail to Kievan Rus and some northern parts of Europe.

Jomsborg was a semi-legendary Viking stronghold at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea medieval Wendland , modern Pomerania , that existed between the s and Its inhabitants were known as Jomsvikings.

Jomsborg's exact location, or its existence, has not yet been established, though it is often maintained that Jomsborg was somewhere on the islands of the Oder estuary.

While the Vikings were active beyond their Scandinavian homelands, Scandinavia was itself experiencing new influences and undergoing a variety of cultural changes.

By the late 11th century, royal dynasties were legitimised by the Catholic Church which had had little influence in Scandinavia years earlier which were asserting their power with increasing authority and ambition, with the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden taking shape.

Towns appeared that functioned as secular and ecclesiastical administrative centres and market sites, and monetary economies began to emerge based on English and German models.

Christianity had taken root in Denmark and Norway with the establishment of dioceses in the 11th century, and the new religion was beginning to organise and assert itself more effectively in Sweden.

Foreign churchmen and native elites were energetic in furthering the interests of Christianity, which was now no longer operating only on a missionary footing, and old ideologies and lifestyles were transforming.

By , the first archbishopric was founded in Scandinavia, at Lund , Scania, then part of Denmark. The assimilation of the nascent Scandinavian kingdoms into the cultural mainstream of European Christendom altered the aspirations of Scandinavian rulers and of Scandinavians able to travel overseas, and changed their relations with their neighbours.

One of the primary sources of profit for the Vikings had been slave-taking from other European peoples. The medieval Church held that Christians should not own fellow Christians as slaves, so chattel slavery diminished as a practice throughout northern Europe.

This took much of the economic incentive out of raiding, though sporadic slaving activity continued into the 11th century.

Scandinavian predation in Christian lands around the North and Irish Seas diminished markedly. The kings of Norway continued to assert power in parts of northern Britain and Ireland, and raids continued into the 12th century, but the military ambitions of Scandinavian rulers were now directed toward new paths.

In , Sigurd I of Norway sailed for the eastern Mediterranean with Norwegian crusaders to fight for the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem , and Danes and Swedes participated energetically in the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries.

A variety of sources illuminate the culture, activities, and beliefs of the Vikings. Although they were generally a non-literate culture that produced no literary legacy, they had an alphabet and described themselves and their world on runestones.

Most contemporary literary and written sources on the Vikings come from other cultures that were in contact with them.

The most important primary sources on the Vikings are contemporary texts from Scandinavia and regions where the Vikings were active.

Most contemporary documentary sources consist of texts written in Christian and Islamic communities outside Scandinavia, often by authors who had been negatively affected by Viking activity.

Later writings on the Vikings and the Viking Age can also be important for understanding them and their culture, although they need to be treated cautiously.

After the consolidation of the church and the assimilation of Scandinavia and its colonies into the mainstream of medieval Christian culture in the 11th and 12th centuries, native written sources begin to appear in Latin and Old Norse.

In the Viking colony of Iceland, an extraordinary vernacular literature blossomed in the 12th through 14th centuries, and many traditions connected with the Viking Age were written down for the first time in the Icelandic sagas.

A literal interpretation of these medieval prose narratives about the Vikings and the Scandinavian past is doubtful, but many specific elements remain worthy of consideration, such as the great quantity of skaldic poetry attributed to court poets of the 10th and 11th centuries, the exposed family trees, the self images, the ethical values, that are contained in these literary writings.

Indirectly, the Vikings have also left a window open onto their language, culture and activities, through many Old Norse place names and words found in their former sphere of influence.

Some of these place names and words are still in direct use today, almost unchanged, and shed light on where they settled and what specific places meant to them.

Viking influence is also evident in concepts like the present-day parliamentary body of the Tynwald on the Isle of Man.

Some modern words and names only emerge and contribute to our understanding after a more intense research of linguistic sources from medieval or later records, such as York Horse Bay , Swansea Sveinn 's Isle or some of the place names in Normandy like Tocqueville Toki's farm.

Linguistic and etymological studies continue to provide a vital source of information on the Viking culture, their social structure and history and how they interacted with the people and cultures they met, traded, attacked or lived with in overseas settlements.

It has been speculated that the reason for this was the great differences between the two languages, combined with the Rus' Vikings more peaceful businesses in these areas and the fact that they were outnumbered.

The Norse named some of the rapids on the Dnieper , but this can hardly be seen from the modern names. The Norse of the Viking Age could read and write and used a non-standardised alphabet, called runor , built upon sound values.

While there are few remains of runic writing on paper from the Viking era, thousands of stones with runic inscriptions have been found where Vikings lived.

They are usually in memory of the dead, though not necessarily placed at graves. The use of runor survived into the 15th century, used in parallel with the Latin alphabet.

The runestones are unevenly distributed in Scandinavia: Denmark has runestones, Norway has 50 while Iceland has none.

The Swedish district of Uppland has the highest concentration with as many as 1, inscriptions in stone, whereas Södermanland is second with The majority of runic inscriptions from the Viking period are found in Sweden.

Many runestones in Scandinavia record the names of participants in Viking expeditions, such as the Kjula runestone that tells of extensive warfare in Western Europe and the Turinge Runestone , which tells of a war band in Eastern Europe.

Other runestones mention men who died on Viking expeditions. Among them include the England runestones Swedish : Englandsstenarna which is a group of about 30 runestones in Sweden which refer to Viking Age voyages to England.

They were engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark. The Jelling stones date from between and The older, smaller stone was raised by King Gorm the Old , the last pagan king of Denmark, as a memorial honouring Queen Thyre.

It has three sides: one with an animal image, one with an image of the crucified Jesus Christ, and a third bearing the following inscription:.

Runestones attest to voyages to locations such as Bath , [] Greece how the Vikings referred to the Byzantium territories generally , [] Khwaresm , [] Jerusalem , [] Italy as Langobardland , [] Serkland i.

Viking Age inscriptions have also been discovered on the Manx runestones on the Isle of Man. The last known people to use the Runic alphabet were an isolated group of people known as the Elfdalians , that lived in the locality of Älvdalen in the Swedish province of Dalarna.

They spoke the language of Elfdalian , the language unique to Älvdalen. The Elfdalian language differentiates itself from the other Scandinavian languages as it evolved much closer to Old Norse.

The people of Älvdalen stopped using runes as late as the s. Usage of runes therefore survived longer in Älvdalen than anywhere else in the world.

Traditionally regarded as a Swedish dialect, [] but by several criteria closer related to West Scandinavian dialects, [] Elfdalian is a separate language by the standard of mutual intelligibility.

Residents in the area who speak only Swedish as their sole native language, neither speaking nor understanding Elfdalian, are also common.

Älvdalen can be said to have had its own alphabet during the 17th and 18th century. Today there are about 2, native speakers of Elfdalian.

The burial practices of the Vikings were quite varied, from dug graves in the ground, to tumuli , sometimes including so-called ship burials.

According to written sources, most of the funerals took place at sea. The funerals involved either burial or cremation , depending on local customs.

In the area that is now Sweden, cremations were predominant; in Denmark burial was more common; and in Norway both were common.

There have been several archaeological finds of Viking ships of all sizes, providing knowledge of the craftsmanship that went into building them.

There were many types of Viking ships, built for various uses; the best-known type is probably the longship. The longship had a long, narrow hull and shallow draught to facilitate landings and troop deployments in shallow water.

Longships were used extensively by the Leidang , the Scandinavian defence fleets. The longship allowed the Norse to go Viking , which might explain why this type of ship has become almost synonymous with the concept of Vikings.

The Vikings built many unique types of watercraft, often used for more peaceful tasks. The knarr was a dedicated merchant vessel designed to carry cargo in bulk.

It had a broader hull, deeper draught, and a small number of oars used primarily to manoeuvre in harbours and similar situations.

One Viking innovation was the ' beitass ', a spar mounted to the sail that allowed their ships to sail effectively against the wind.

Ships were an integral part of the Viking culture. They facilitated everyday transportation across seas and waterways, exploration of new lands, raids, conquests, and trade with neighbouring cultures.

They also held a major religious importance. People with high status were sometimes buried in a ship along with animal sacrifices, weapons, provisions and other items, as evidenced by the buried vessels at Gokstad and Oseberg in Norway [] and the excavated ship burial at Ladby in Denmark.

Ship burials were also practised by Vikings abroad, as evidenced by the excavations of the Salme ships on the Estonian island of Saaremaa.

Well-preserved remains of five Viking ships were excavated from Roskilde Fjord in the late s, representing both the longship and the knarr.

The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel and thus protect Roskilde , then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault.

The remains of these ships are on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. In , archaeologists uncovered two Viking boat graves in Gamla Uppsala.

They also discovered that one of the boats still holds the remains of a man, a dog, and a horse, along with other items. Viking society was divided into the three socio-economic classes: Thralls, Karls and Jarls.

Archaeology has confirmed this social structure. Thralls were the lowest ranking class and were slaves. Slaves comprised as much as a quarter of the population.

Thralls were servants and workers in the farms and larger households of the Karls and Jarls, and they were used for constructing fortifications, ramps, canals, mounds, roads and similar hard work projects.

According to the Rigsthula, Thralls were despised and looked down upon. New thralls were supplied by either the sons and daughters of thralls or captured abroad.

The Vikings often deliberately captured many people on their raids in Europe, to enslave them as thralls. The thralls were then brought back home to Scandinavia by boat, used on location or in newer settlements to build needed structures, or sold, often to the Arabs in exchange for silver.

Karls were free peasants. They owned farms, land and cattle and engaged in daily chores like ploughing the fields, milking the cattle, building houses and wagons, but used thralls to make ends meet.

Other names for Karls were 'bonde' or simply free men. The Jarls were the aristocracy of the Viking society. They were wealthy and owned large estates with huge longhouses, horses and many thralls.

The thralls did most of the daily chores, while the Jarls did administration, politics, hunting, sports, visited other Jarls or went abroad on expeditions.

When a Jarl died and was buried, his household thralls were sometimes sacrificially killed and buried next to him, as many excavations have revealed.

In daily life, there were many intermediate positions in the overall social structure and it is believed that there must have been some social mobility.

These details are unclear, but titles and positions like hauldr , thegn , landmand , show mobility between the Karls and the Jarls. Members of the latter were referred to as drenge , one of the words for warrior.

There were also official communities within towns and villages, the overall defence, religion, the legal system and the Things. Such a woman was referred to as Baugrygr , and she exercised all the rights afforded to the head of a family clan—such as the right to demand and receive fines for the slaughter of a family member—until she married, by which her rights were transferred to her new husband.

After the age of 20, an unmarried woman, referred to as maer and mey , reached legal majority and had the right to decide her place of residence and was regarded as her own person before the law.

Female graves from before the Viking Age in Scandinavia holds a proportional large number of remains from women aged 20 to 35, presumably due to complications of childbirth.

Widows enjoyed the same independent status as unmarried women. A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry. There was no distinction made between children born inside or outside marriage: both had the right to inherit property after their parents, and there were no "legitimate" or "illegitimate" children.

The three classes were easily recognisable by their appearances. Men and women of the Jarls were well groomed with neat hairstyles and expressed their wealth and status by wearing expensive clothes often silk and well crafted jewellery like brooches , belt buckles, necklaces and arm rings.

Almost all of the jewellery was crafted in specific designs unique to the Norse see Viking art. Finger rings were seldom used and earrings were not used at all, as they were seen as a Slavic phenomenon.

Most Karls expressed similar tastes and hygiene, but in a more relaxed and inexpensive way. Archaeological findings throughout Scandinavia and Viking settlements in the British Isles support the idea of the well groomed and hygienic Viking.

Burial with grave goods was a common practice in the Scandinavian world, through the Viking Age and well past the Christianization of the Norse peoples.

The manufacturing of such antler combs was common, as at the Viking settlement at Dublin hundreds of examples of combs from the tenth-century have survived, suggesting that grooming was a common practice.

The sagas tell about the diet and cuisine of the Vikings, [] but first hand evidence, like cesspits , kitchen middens and garbage dumps have proved to be of great value and importance.

Undigested remains of plants from cesspits at Coppergate in York have provided much information in this respect. Overall, archaeo-botanical investigations have been undertaken increasingly in recent decades, as a collaboration between archaeologists and palaeoethno-botanists.

This new approach sheds light on the agricultural and horticultural practices of the Vikings and their cuisine. The combined information from various sources suggests a diverse cuisine and ingredients.

Meat products of all kinds, such as cured , smoked and whey -preserved meat, [] sausages, and boiled or fried fresh meat cuts, were prepared and consumed.

Certain livestock were typical and unique to the Vikings, including the Icelandic horse , Icelandic cattle , a plethora of sheep breeds, [] the Danish hen and the Danish goose.

Most of the beef and horse leg bones were found split lengthways, to extract the marrow. The mutton and swine were cut into leg and shoulder joints and chops.

The frequent remains of pig skull and foot bones found on house floors indicate that brawn and trotters were also popular.

Hens were kept for both their meat and eggs, and the bones of game birds such as black grouse , golden plover , wild ducks, and geese have also been found.

Seafood was important, in some places even more so than meat. Whales and walrus were hunted for food in Norway and the north-western parts of the North Atlantic region, and seals were hunted nearly everywhere.

Oysters , mussels and shrimps were eaten in large quantities and cod and salmon were popular fish. In the southern regions, herring was also important.

Milk and buttermilk were popular, both as cooking ingredients and drinks, but were not always available, even at farms. Food was often salted and enhanced with spices, some of which were imported like black pepper , while others were cultivated in herb gardens or harvested in the wild.

Home grown spices included caraway , mustard and horseradish as evidenced from the Oseberg ship burial [] or dill , coriander , and wild celery , as found in cesspits at Coppergate in York.

Thyme , juniper berry , sweet gale , yarrow , rue and peppercress were also used and cultivated in herb gardens.

Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts. Apple wild crab apples , plums and cherries were part of the diet, [] as were rose hips and raspberry , wild strawberry , blackberry , elderberry , rowan , hawthorn and various wild berries, specific to the locations.

The shells were used for dyeing, and it is assumed that the nuts were consumed. The invention and introduction of the mouldboard plough revolutionised agriculture in Scandinavia in the early Viking Age and made it possible to farm even poor soils.

In Ribe , grains of rye , barley , oat and wheat dated to the 8th century have been found and examined, and are believed to have been cultivated locally.

Remains of bread from primarily Birka in Sweden were made of barley and wheat. It is unclear if the Norse leavened their breads, but their ovens and baking utensils suggest that they did.

This suggests a much higher actual percentage, as linen is poorly preserved compared to wool for example. The quality of food for common people was not always particularly high.

The research at Coppergate shows that the Vikings in York made bread from whole meal flour—probably both wheat and rye —but with the seeds of cornfield weeds included.

Corncockle Agrostemma , would have made the bread dark-coloured, but the seeds are poisonous, and people who ate the bread might have become ill.

Seeds of carrots, parsnip , and brassicas were also discovered, but they were poor specimens and tend to come from white carrots and bitter tasting cabbages.

The effects of this can be seen on skeletal remains of that period. Sports were widely practised and encouraged by the Vikings. This included spear and stone throwing, building and testing physical strength through wrestling see glima , fist fighting , and stone lifting.

In areas with mountains, mountain climbing was practised as a sport. Agility and balance were built and tested by running and jumping for sport, and there is mention of a sport that involved jumping from oar to oar on the outside of a ship's railing as it was being rowed [].

Swimming was a popular sport and Snorri Sturluson describes three types: diving, long-distance swimming, and a contest in which two swimmers try to dunk one another.

Children often participated in some of the sport disciplines and women have also been mentioned as swimmers, although it is unclear if they took part in competition.

King Olaf Tryggvason was hailed as a master of both mountain climbing and oar-jumping, and was said to have excelled in the art of knife juggling as well.

Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also used as everyday means of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north.

Horse fighting was practised for sport, although the rules are unclear. It appears to have involved two stallions pitted against each other, within smell and sight of fenced-off mares.

Whatever the rules were, the fights often resulted in the death of one of the stallions. Icelandic sources refer to the sport of knattleik.

A ball game akin to hockey , knattleik involved a bat and a small hard ball and was usually played on a smooth field of ice.

The rules are unclear, but it was popular with both adults and children, even though it often led to injuries. Knattleik appears to have been played only in Iceland, where it attracted many spectators, as did horse fighting.

Hunting, as a sport, was limited to Denmark, where it was not regarded as an important occupation. Birds, deer , hares and foxes were hunted with bow and spear, and later with crossbows.

The techniques were stalking, snare and traps and par force hunting with dog packs. Both archaeological finds and written sources testify to the fact that the Vikings set aside time for social and festive gatherings.

Board games and dice games were played as a popular pastime at all levels of society. Preserved gaming pieces and boards show game boards made of easily available materials like wood, with game pieces manufactured from stone, wood or bone, while other finds include elaborately carved boards and game pieces of glass, amber , antler or walrus tusk, together with materials of foreign origin, such as ivory.

The Vikings played several types of tafl games; hnefatafl , nitavl nine men's morris and the less common kvatrutafl. Chess also appeared at the end of the Viking Age.

Hnefatafl is a war game, in which the object is to capture the king piece—a large hostile army threatens and the king's men have to protect the king.

It was played on a board with squares using black and white pieces, with moves made according to dice rolls. The Ockelbo Runestone shows two men engaged in Hnefatafl, and the sagas suggest that money or valuables could have been involved in some dice games.

On festive occasions storytelling , skaldic poetry , music and alcoholic drinks, like beer and mead , contributed to the atmosphere.

The Vikings are known to have played instruments including harps , fiddles , lyres and lutes. Viking-age reenactors have undertaken experimental activities such as iron smelting and forging using Norse techniques at Norstead in Newfoundland for example.

The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a excavation in the Roskilde Fjord. Tree-ring analysis has shown the ship was built of oak in the vicinity of Dublin in about Seventy multi-national crew members sailed the ship back to its home, and Sea Stallion arrived outside Dublin's Custom House on 14 August The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed, and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents.

The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society.

The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship. Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev have been built and tested as well.

Elements of a Scandinavian identity and practices were maintained in settler societies, but they could be quite distinct as the groups assimilated into the neighboring societies.

Assimilation to the Frankish culture in Normandy for example was rapid. Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.

According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times. These arms indicated a Viking's social status: a wealthy Viking had a complete ensemble of a helmet , shield , mail shirt, and sword.

However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items.

Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.

Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.

Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria , [] or large amounts of alcohol.

The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia.

Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy, that is, the weight of precious metals.

Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.

A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled.

Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products. The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants.

To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods. These goods included: [].

Other exports included weapons, walrus ivory , wax , salt and cod. As one of the more exotic exports, hunting birds were sometimes provided from Norway to the European aristocracy, from the 10th century.

Many of these goods were also traded within the Viking world itself, as well as goods such as soapstone and whetstone.

Soapstone was traded with the Norse on Iceland and in Jutland , who used it for pottery. Whetstones were traded and used for sharpening weapons, tools and knives.

This trade satisfied the Vikings' need for leather and meat to some extent, and perhaps hides for parchment production on the European mainland. Wool was also very important as a domestic product for the Vikings, to produce warm clothing for the cold Scandinavian and Nordic climate, and for sails.

Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology. There are archaeological signs of organised textile productions in Scandinavia, reaching as far back as the early Iron Ages.

Artisans and craftsmen in the larger towns were supplied with antlers from organised hunting with large-scale reindeer traps in the far north.

They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.

The devastation of Northumbria 's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe to the Viking presence. Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.

Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes. Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.

The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.

Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.

Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.

These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king.

Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e. Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus History of the northern people of Olaus Magnus , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum Deeds of the Danes , by Saxo Grammaticus , in The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hickes , who published his Linguarum vett.

During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.

The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking. Geijer's poem did much to propagate the new romanticised ideal of the Viking, which had little basis in historical fact.

The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications. The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent.

Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.

In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism.

Pioneering 19th-century scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain, archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past, and linguistic enthusiasts started to identify the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs.

The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas. Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.

The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.

In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.

The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of a Germanic master race.

The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.

Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.

Soviet and earlier Slavophile historians emphasized a Slavic rooted foundation in contrast to the Normanist theory of the Vikings conquering the Slavs and founding the Kievan Rus'.

They argued that Rus' composition was Slavic and that Rurik and Oleg' success was rooted in their support from within the local Slavic aristocracy.

These have included novels directly based on historical events, such as Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 's The Long Ships which was also released as a film , and historical fantasies such as the film The Vikings , Michael Crichton 's Eaters of the Dead movie version called The 13th Warrior , and the comedy film Erik the Viking.

Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.

The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series. The appearance of Vikings within popular media and television has seen a resurgence in recent decades, especially with the History Channel's series Vikings , directed by Michael Hirst.

However, the conclusions remain contentious. Vikings have served as an inspiration for numerous video games , such as The Lost Vikings , Age of Mythology , and For Honor Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, movies, television series, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.

Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.

Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.

The formal, close-quarters style of Viking combat either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands" would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.

Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.

The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th-century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet , founded in in Stockholm.

The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.

This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.

The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.

Horned helmets from the Bronze Age were shown in petroglyphs and appeared in archaeological finds see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets.

They were probably used for ceremonial purposes. Cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking , and sports kits such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders have perpetuated the myth of the horned helmet.

Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops.

The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden. The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway.

This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century. The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.

There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century [] as referring to the skulls of the slain.

Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.

Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates. Contemporary countries. Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden.

Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion.

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